KCNH2 Variant P451L Detail

We estimate the penetrance of LQTS for KCNH2 P451L is 33%. This variant was found in a total of 12 carriers in 2 papers or gnomAD, 4 had LQTS. P451L is present in 6 alleles in gnomAD. P451L has not been functionally characterized. This residue is located in a Mild_Hotspot region for LQT2. In silico predictions, functional data (if available), and location in structure are equivalent to observing 3 individuals with LQT2 and 7 unaffected individuals.These data combined with observations of carriers lead us to estimate the LQTS penetrance for KCNQ1 P451L around 33% (7/22).

In Silico Data

PROVEAN PolyPhen-2 BLAST-PSSM REVEL Penetrance Density (%)
-8.867 0.807 -3 0.926 35
PROVEAN scores less than -2 are considered deleterious. REVEL scores higher than 0.5 or 0.75 are considered likely pathogenic (higher sensitivity with the former cutoff, higher specificity with the latter cutoff). A PolyPhen-2 score of 0.85 or greater is considered likely pathogenic. BLAST-PSSM reflects the evolutionary conservation of residue substitutions, more negative numbers indicate fewer observations of the specific substitution than is expected. Penetrance density is our previously published method to calculate the average LQTS probability density in a shell of residues surrounding a residue of interest (Kroncke et al. 2019).

Reported Carrier Data

PubMed ID Year Carriers Unaffected LQT2 Other Disease
10862094 2000 4 2 2
29622001 2018 2 0 2
Summary totals might not agree with the literature table because of duplicate patients, which were excluded from the total counts. We do not distinguish here between multiple missense codons. Missense variants are combined across degenerate codon substitutions since codon-level data were not consistently available for curation.

P451L has 15 previously observed neighbors within 15 angstroms

A residue within a folded protein on average has nearest neighbors that fall roughly into two shells: a "nearest" neighbor around 5-6 angstroms and a second shell around 11 angstroms. NOTE: some residues appear multiple times at different distances since the functional KV11.1 channel (protein product of KCNH2/hERG) is a homotetramer and occasionally the same residue from multiple subunits is present within the 15A window. All variants shown in the rightmost column have been observed in at least one individual in the literature or gnomAD.

Neighbor Distance (Angstroms) Variants Observed in Individuals
451 0 P451L,
450 4
452 5
453 6
454 6
449 6
455 7
456 10 D456Y,
457 11 L457P,
458 12
424 12
420 12 Y420C,
428 14 S428X, S428fsX, S428L,
459 14
427 14 Y427C, Y427S, Y427H,